Get Latest and Updated Tamil Nadu 12th New Syllabus 2023-24

Get the Latest and Updated Tamil Nadu 12th New Syllabus.
CA Foundation Sep 2024 New Bactch 26May

If you are looking for the updated Tamil Nadu 12th Syllabus, you are on the right page. This article will get complete information about the new syllabus and subject of the Tamil Nadu 12th class. This article is updated as per the Government syllabus guidelines. I will talk on one more topic for students that helps them for their career growth by giving them the path to choose a career opportunity after 12th.  

Generally, commerce students choose CA (Chartered Accountancy) after the 12th examination. There is also an opportunity for Science stream students to choose CA as a future and the excellent point is anybody can select CA as a career. Chartered Accountancy is one of the reputed professional jobs that students can become by giving their full dedication to the course.

Let’s talk about the article so students can get the subject’s details, chapter-wise details, syllabus, etc.

TN State Board 12th Syllabus 2023-24

The state board of Tamil Nadu conducts the public examinations for the students every year. Board Directorate of Tamil Nadu Government makes updates every year in the TN HSC syllabus for students. Candidates appearing for TN HSC class 12th exam 2023-24 should be aware of the new Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus; this will help students know the exam’s updated question pattern. Students appearing for the Tamil Nadu 12th exam must go through every topic of the latest syllabus.

Tamil Nadu 12th HSC Syllabus– English

Chapters Topics
Vocabulary competencies Meaning, syllabification, spellings, word formation, vocabulary improvement, phrasal verbs, and idioms, foreign words, and phrases.
Grammatical competencies Sentence patterns, conditional and concessional clauses, modal auxiliaries, reported speech, relative clauses, sentence transformation, and passivization.
Listening Competencies Comprehension passage containing six-eight lines, short passages, ease of breath, CNN news panel discussion, coherence.
Reading competences Descriptive, argumentative, factual, and literary texts.
Writing competencies Scientific and factual discourse, interesting texts, reports, relevant situations, non-verbal information, projects, advertisements, et cetera.
Study skills Dictionaries, library facilities, internet, verbal and non-verbal texts, lectures, books and journals, essays of students, email language.
Occupational Report writing, presenting messages, picture composition, presenting facts and figures in a systematic method, advertisements, etc.
Strategic competencies Samples of pupil language, areas of doubt, hesitation, etc.
Creative competencies Essay writing, poem writing, critical appraisal, scriptwriting for interviews, cartoon scripts, travelogues, captions for photographs, translation.
Speaking competencies Introduction to topics through group discussions, greeting, introducing, giving information, disagreeing peacefully, projecting one’s image, expressing gratitude, welcome address, vote of thanks, etc.

Tamil Nadu 12th Syllabus 2023-24 – Mathematic

Chapters Topics
Systems  of equations Systems of linear equations, methods of solution
Application of matrices Matrices for transformations: Matrices for Translation, Reflection, Rotation, Glide reflection, Shear and Stretch, Isometry, and similarity matrices.
Analytical geometry Definition of a conic, Derivation of the standard equation of Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola and Rectangular Hyperbola, Chords, Tangents & Normals, etc.
Vector algebra Vectors and Scalars Representations of vectors and operations of addition and subtraction, Scalar and vector products, Triple products, products 4 vectors, etc.
Application of differentiation Derivative as a rate measurer, Derivative as a measure of slope, Mean Value Theorems, Curve tracing, et cetera.
Application of integration Definite integral and its applications
Differential equations  Formation of differential equations, I order and II Order Linear Equations, Applications.
Probability distribution Random variable, probability functions, mathematical expectation, discrete and continuous distribution.
Complex number Complex Algebra Fundamental operations on complex numbers, Applications.
Algebraic structures Rings. Integral Domains and Fields, Group Structure.

TN Board 12th HSC Syllabus – Physics

Chapters Topics
Current electricity Electric Current, drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistivity, superconductivity, Combination of resistors, Electric power, etc.
Effects of electric current Healing effect, Joule’s law, magnetic effect of electric current, Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, Conversion to ammeter and voltmeter, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc.
Electromagnetic (EI) induction and alternating current (AC) (EI),(AC), Eddy current, AC generator, methods of inducing emf, self-induction.
Electromagnetic waves and wave optics Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Emission and Absorption spectrum, Theories of light, Wavefront and Huygens principle, etc.
Atomic physics Atomic structure, Bohr’s model, Sommerfield’s atom model, Quantum numbers, x -rays production properties, detection, absorption, diffraction of x – rays, etc.
Dual nature of radiation and matter The photo-electric effect, Photocells and their application, Matter waves, electron microscope.
Nuclear physics Nuclear properties, Nuclear mass defect, Nature of Nuclear forces, Neutron discovery, Radioactivity, Nuclear fission.
Relativity Concept of space, time and mass, Frame of reference, Newtonian relativity, Special theory of relativity, Doppler effect of light,
Semiconductor devices and their applications Semiconductor theory, Semiconductor doping, Formation of P-N Junction, Diode as a rectifier, Junction – transistors, Measuring Instruments, etc.
Communication systems Modes of propagation ground wave, Amplitude modulation, Antennas, and Transmission lines, TV.Transmission and reception, Video signal analysis, etc.

Tamil Nadu 12th Latest Syllabus 2023-24 – Chemistry

Chapters Topics
Inorganic chemistry Atomic Structure II, Periodic Table, Coordination compounds & bio coordination compounds, Nuclear Chemistry, etc.
Physical chemistry Solid State, Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibrium, Chemical Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Electro Chemistry, Electro Chemistry II, etc.
Organic chemistry Isomerism in Organic Chemistry, Hydroxy derivatives, Ethers, Carbonyl Compounds, Carboxylic acid, Organic Nitrogen Compounds, Biomolecules, Chemistry in Action, Problems in Chemistry.
CA Foundation Sep 2024 New Bactch 26May


Class 12th Tamil Nadu Syllabus– Biology

  • Bio- Botany
Chapters Topics
Reproduction in plants
  1. Asexual Reproduction – Introduction; Asexual reproduction – Modes;
  1. Vegetative propagation; Sexual
  2. Reproduction – Stages of Sexual Reproduction; Pre-fertilization
  1. Fertilization – Events of fertilization; Formation of pollen tube;
  2. Types of pollen tube entry – histology of style –transmission tissue; Syngamy; Triple fusion & Double Fertilization
  1. Post-Fertilization Changes – Zygote formation &
  2. Development of fruit; Endosperm and types;
  3. Embryogenesis – development of dicot embryo; Seed (monocot vs dicot); Transformation of parts of a flower
  4. Special modes of Reproduction – Apomixis, Types of apomixis; Polyembryony, Types (Simple and Adventive & True and False ) Causes; Parthenocarpy, Types and Applications & significance
Genetics and molecular biology
  1. Heredity and Variation – Heredity And Variation and A recent finding in genetics; Mendelian Inheritance –Laws;
  2. Monohybrid, Dihybrid, Test cross, Trihybrid cross, Back cross & Test cross; Incomplete Dominance –Lethal Genes,
  3. Interaction Of Genes- Intragenic & Intergenic; Polygenic Inheritance In Wheat(Kernel Colour) Pleiotropy-Pisum Sativum
  4. Chromosomal basis of Inheritance – Chromosomal Theory Of Inheritance;
  5. Comparison between gene and chromosomal behavior; Linkage And Crossing Over Eye color in Drosophila, Maize multiple allelism;
  6. Recombination; Sex Determination In Plants Sphaerocarpos, Papaya, Maize; Mutation, types and Mutagenic agents, Significance of mutation;
  7. Gene Mapping
  8. Molecular Biology – Introduction to Molecular Biology; Central Dogma; Transcription; Regulation of Gene expression
Plant biotechnology
  1. Principles Of Biotechnology – Introduction to biotechnology;
  2. Historical perspective; Milestones –including fermentation, SCP, PTC, protoplast fusion, genome sequencing, evolutionary pattern (the relationship between various plant species), plant genome projects, RNA i- Genome editing – CRISPR CAS -9;
  3. Principles: Genetic Engineering (rDNA technology); Tools: Restriction endonuclease; DNA ligase and alkaline phosphatase; Vectors: Properties of vectors, Plasmid – PBR 322, Cosmid, Bacteriophage vector, Phagemid, BAC, YAC, Transposon as vector, Shuttle vector Recombinant DNA Technology – Introduction to recombination; Steps involved in RDT; Methods of gene-transfer; Direct – electroporation, gene gun, liposome-mediated; Indirect – Agrobacterium-mediated gene-transfer – Ti plasmid;
  4. Screening for recombinants
  5. Insertional inactivation-blue – white colony selection;
  6. Antibiotic-resistant markers; Replica plating technique;
  7. Molecular techniques – isolation of genetic material and gel electrophoresis; Southern blotting; northern blotting; PCR, western blotting, ELISA; Bioassay for target gene effect
  8. Transgenic plants (GM crops) – Herbicide-tolerant
  9. Glyphosate, Basta; Insect resistance – Bt crops(cotton)Bt cotton, Bt Brinjal, DMH;
  10. Virus resistance; FlavrSavr tomato;
  11. Golden rice – biofortification; PHB – PLA; Green
  12. Fluorescent Protein(GFP), Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) in Transgenic Arabidopsis
  13. Other applications – Biopharming – plant as bioreactors;
  14. Bioprospecting, biopiracy (neem/turmeric);
  15. Bioremediation; Biofuel, algal biofuel; Interdisciplinary fields of biotechnology;
  16. IPR & patent
  17. Biosafety and Bioethics – Ethical Legal Social Issues (ELSI)–genetic engineering appraisal committee (GEAC)
  18. Plant Tissue Culture – Introduction about plant tissue culture and explaining terminologies like totipotency, differentiation, redifferentiation, and dedifferentiation;
  19. Basic technique involved in PTC; Media preparation; MS medium; Types of culture – callus, embryo, protoplast culture (hybrid and cybrid),
  20. cell suspension culture –production of secondary metabolites; Plant regeneration pathway;
  21. Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis;
  22. Applications; Micropropagation (banana) – Artificial seed,
  23. Virus-free plants; Germplasm conservation –
  24. Cryopreservation (-196C)
Plant ecology 
  1. Principles of Ecology – Introduction – Autecology, Synecology, Habitat and Ecological niche, Ecological equivalents, Biotic and Abiotic factors – responses of plants to temperature, water, light and soil, Topography, the definition of stenothermal, stenohaline, eurythermal, euryhaline plants with one example in each;
  2. Ecological adaptations – hydrophytes, mesophytes, xerophytes and halophytes, and epiphytes in term of morphological, physiological, and behavioral response;
  3. Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism, and amensalism with plant examples, Plant-Animal Interaction-Herbivory, Pollination, seed dispersal –Coevolution Ecosystem – Definition, types, structure (Pond ecosystem), brief outline about biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem, Major Ecosystem of India andWorld, ecosystem functions – Productivity (GPP & NPP), secondary productivity; Decomposition – fragmentation, leaching, catabolism, humification, mineralization, factors affecting rate of decomposition; Types of food chain & Food web (grazing, detritus food, trophic level ecological pyramids – energy numbers, biomass);
  4. Definition of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) – Energy flow – Laws of Thermodynamics, 10% law for transfer of energy from one trophic level to next- standing crop, standing state of the ecosystem; Nutrient cycle – definition, biogeochemical cycle (carbon and phosphorous cycles only) – graphical representation of the above cycles;
  5. Succession – definition, kinds of succession, hydrosere, lithosere, xerosere, primary & secondary with an example; Definition of pioneer community and climax community;
  6. Significance of ecological success on environmental issues – Alien Invasive species – Impacts –(example -Kappaphycus, Eichhornia, Lantana, Parthenium, Prosopis, etc.);
  7. agrochemicals and their effects; greenhouse effect and global warming, climate change, ozone depletion, Impact on food crops, CCS – carbon – accumulation, trading, sequestration, Carbon footprint/Ecological footprint – deforestation –causes and effects, Afforestation, any one case study as success story addressing environmental issues;
  8. Drone technology to study vegetation and pest attacks; Forestry – Agroforestry – Social forestry – Community forestry – Conservation movements (CHIPKO & APIKO );
  9. Rainwater harvesting – swachh Bharath, Important Lakes in TN (Madurantakam, Chembarabakkam, Sholavaram )- Philosophy, construction- Ecological importance; Sewage disposal – Solid and liquid waste management
Economic botany
  1. Traditional Knowledge of plants – Relationship between Humans and plants;
  2. The traditional system of medicines- Siddha and Ayurveda and folk. Plant breeding – strategies for enhancing food production; Conventional methods -Plant breeding, Selection, Hybridization, Heterosis, Mutation, polyploidy, Green revolution; Modern methods – GM crops –definition and example. Improved varieties of commonly used plants (Rice, Wheat, Pulses, etc.)
  • Bio- Zoology
Chapters Topics
  1. REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS – Reproduction – characteristic features of all organisms, continuation of species – Modes of reproduction: Asexual and sexual – Modes of asexual reproduction: Binary and multiple fission – Sporulation – Budding – Gemmule –Fragmentation – Regeneration – Modes of sexual reproduction: External and internal fertilization -Oviparous, Ovoviviparous and Viviparous – examples HUMAN REPRODUCTION – Human reproductive system Male and Female reproductive system – Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis and oogenesis – Structure of Spermatozoa and ovum Fertilization and Implantation – Menstrual Cycle-Menstrual Hygiene – Napkins, Tampons – Cervical Cancer – Maintenance of Pregnancy – Pregnancy and Embryonic Development – Parturition and lactation – Hormones in parturition – lactation – Colostrum REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – The strategies to be implemented to attain total reproductive health – Statutory ban on gender Detection in Pregnancy – Amniocentesis, Ultra sound Scan,- Population explosion and birth control – Control Measures- Statutory rising of marriageable age – small families and family planning programme – Contraceptive methods – Natural barriers – Social Impact of Sex Ratio, Feticide and Infanticide – IUDs -Copper IUDs- Cu-7, CuT 380A, Multiload 375 and Hormonal releasing IUDs- Progestasert, LNG 20) – Oral Pills -Female contraceptive injections – Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), combined progestin and estrogen monthly injections – Implants and surgical methods – Medical Termination of Pregnancy – The medical necessity and social consequences of MTP – Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) – The major STDs and its symptoms- AIDS – Hepatitis, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Genital Herpes, Genital warts, Trichomoniasis, Chlamydiasis. – Mode of Transmission – Preventive measures – Infertility – Methods used to assist the infertile couple to have children– IVF-ET, ZIFT, GIFT, IUT, AI, ICSI – Surrogacy
Genetics and evolution PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION – Multiple alleles – Human Blood Groups – ABO Blood groups inheritance – Genetic control of Rh factor – Erythroblastosis foetalis – Sex determination – Autosome, Allosome – Sex determination in Humans – Sex Linked Inheritance – Barr bodies{x-inactivation} – X-linked inheritance – Haemophilia – Colour blindness – Y-linked- Hypertrichosis – Karyotyping – Pedigree analysis – Mendelian Disorders – Chromosomal abnormalities – Down’s syndrome – Klinefelter’s Syndrome – Turner’s Syndrome MOLECULAR GENETICS – Nucleic Acids – DNA – Structure of Polynucleotide chain – Packing of DNA Helix – The search for genetic material – DNA is a genetic material – Hershey and Chase Experiment – Properties of Genetic materials – RNA world – Types of RNA – Role of RNA – Replication – Enzymes for DNA replication – Mechanism of Replication – experimental proof of DNA replication(Meselson and Stahl’s Experiment) – Transcription – Transcription unit – Transcription unit and gene, etc.
Biology and human welfare
  1. HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES – Common diseases in man: Infectious and non-infectious diseases – Common diseases in Man-typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, ringworm infection – Diseases caused by protozoans- malaria, amoebiasis – Diseases caused by helminths- Ascariasis, filariasis. – Maintenance of personal and public hygiene. Immunity – Basic concepts of immunology- Innate immunity. Acquired immunity, – primary and secondary immune response;
  2. cells of the immune system – Structure of antibody – Active and passive immunity– vaccination and Immunisation – Allergies -; Lymphoid organs in the body – Autoimmunity- Autoimmune disease Cancer and AIDS;
  3. Adolescence and Drug / Alcohol abuse –Addiction and Dependence- Effects of drug-Drug / Alcohol abuse-Prevention and Control- Alcohol abuse- Depression – Mental Health
Animal biotechnology and its application Principles of Biotechnology – applications in Medicine – Human insulin – Human growth hormones – Human blood clotting factors in treating hemophilia – Interferons –Vaccines – Gene therapy – Molecular diagnosis – ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immune- Sorbent Assay) – PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction ) – Stem Cell therapy – Bone Marrow Therapy Stem Cell Banks – Animal cloning: Dolly – Transgenic Animals & Biological products (Rosie- cow) and their uses – Ethical issues
Ecology, environment, and conservation ORGANISM AND POPULATION – Concept of Ecology – Environment – habitat & Niche – Concept of Biome & distribution – Major abiotic factors, water, light, temperature & soil – Responses to abiotic factors – Population and ecological Adaptations – Interactions – Commensalism mutualism, competition, predation & parasitism – Population attributes – growth, birth rate & death rate, age distribution – Population growth curve population regulations BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION – Biodiversity – concepts of biodiversity – levels of Biodiversity – Patterns of Biodiversity – Biogeographical regions of India – Biotic provinces of Tamil Nadu


Importance of biodiversity – global /India – Loss of biodiversity – Threats to biodiversity – Biodiversity conservation(Insitu, Ex Situ conservation) – IUCN – Hotspots / Endangered organisms – extinction, red data book – Causes of biodiversity losses ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES – Air pollution and its control – Water pollution and its control – Noise pollution – Agrochemicals and their effects – biomagnifications – Eutrophication – Organic farming & its implementation – Solid waste management / radioactive waste management – greenhouse effect & global warming – ozone depletion – deforestation – E-waste – Remedy of plastic waste – Eco- San toilets – People’s participation in conservation of forest.

Syllabus of Tamil Nadu 12th 2023-24 – Accountancy

Chapters Topics
Accounts from incomplete records- I
  1. Meaning and Definition;
  2. Features and limitations; Differences between incomplete records and double entry system;
  3. Statement of Affairs Method: Steps to be followed;
  4. The distinction between Statement of affairs and Balance Sheet;
  5. Conversion method: Steps to be followed; Statement of affairs method; Conversion method
Accounts of non-profit organizations
  1. Introduction;
  2. Receipts and Payments Account: Meaning, Format;
  3. Income and Expenditure Account: Meaning, Format;
  4. The distinction between Receipts and Payments A/c and Income and Expenditure A/c;
  5. Balance Sheet;
  6. Items peculiar to non-profit organizations which require special treatment
Partnership accounts- basic concepts
  1. Partnership: Meaning and Features;
  2. Features of Limited Liability Partnership;
  3. Partnership deed; Relevant provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed;
  4. Types of Partners; Fixed/fluctuating capital accounts;
  5. Interest on capital and Interest on drawings;
  6. Salary and commission; Division of profits among partners; Profit and loss appropriation account
Treatment of goodwill in partnership accounts
  1. Goodwill: Meaning and nature;
  2. Methods of valuation of Goodwill;
  3. Average profit method; Super profit method;
  4. Capitalization method;
  5. Need for valuation of goodwill in partnership
Partnership- admission
  1. Introduction;
  2. Sacrificing ratio and new profit sharing ratio;
  3. Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities;
  4. Adjustment for Goodwill; Accounting treatment of reserves and accumulated profits;
  5. Revaluation account, capital account, and Balance Sheet of a new firm
Partnership accounts- retirements
  1. Meaning and reasons for retirement;
  2. Gaining ratio and new profit sharing ratio;
  3. Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities; Adjustment for Goodwill;
  4. Accounting treatment of the distribution of reserves and accumulated profits;
  5. Revaluation account, capital account, and balance Sheet after retirement
Partnership accounts-death of a partner
  1. Meaning; New profit sharing ratio and gaining ratio;
  2. Revaluation of Assets and liabilities; Adjustment for
  3. goodwill; Distribution of accumulated profits and losses;
  4. Amount due to the deceased partner’s executor;
  5. Settlement of amount due
Company accounts- I
  1. Company: Definition and characteristics;
  2. Characteristics of a Company; Different types of shares and share capital; Accounting treatment for issue of shares at par, Premium and discount; Oversubscription and under subscription of shares; Forfeitures and reissue of shares
Financial statement analysis- I Financial Statements: Meaning and Features; Significance & Limitations; Format of company final accounts as per companies act, 2013; Tools of financial statement analysis: Common size statement, Comparative statement, Trend Analysis, Funds Flow Statement, Cash Flow Statement
Financial statement analysis- II Common Size Financial Statements; Comparative Financial Statements; Trend Analysis
Financial statement analysis- III
  1. Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Definition;
  2. Objectives and importance; Advantages and limitations;
  3. Classification of Ratios on the basis of financial statements and functions;
  4. Computation of ratios
Computer application in accounting- I
  1. Application of computerized accounting system;
  2. Automating the accounting system; Designing the accounting reports;
  3. Data exchange with other information systems
Computer application in accounting- II Application of Computerised account system- “Tally with GST package”; Practical on Application of accounting software- Creation of Company, Accounts group, etc. and generation of reports


TN Board 12th Syllabus 2023-24 – Business Studies

Chapters Topics
Organization Meaning and Types of Organization
Sole trader Meaning of sole trader, Special features of a sole trader, Merits of a sole trader, Demerits of a sole trader.
partnership Definition of partnership, Special features of partnership, Similarities between sole trader and partnership, Merits and Demerits of Partnership, Types of Partnership, Kinds of Partners, Rights and Duties of partners, Partner’s express and Implied authority, Partnership Deed, Dissolution of partnership, etc.
Companies I and II Definitions, Differences between partnership and company, Kinds of companies, a public company, a private company, Privileges of a private company, Differences between a private company and public company, Formation of a company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Prospectus, Shares, Allotment of shares, DebenturesTypes, Differences between Shares and Debentures.
Stock exchange Introduction, Procedures regarding new Issues, Stock Exchange, Investors and speculatorsDifferences, SEBI, Mutual funds, Bombay Online Trading (BOLT).
Co-operatives Definition, Merits, and Demerits, Types of Co-operatives, Differences between companies and Co-operatives.
Government in business Introduction, Types, Public Corporation, Government Companies, Differences between the private and public sectors.


Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2023-24 – Economics

Chapters Topics
Economic growth and economic development Meaning and Differences between Growth and development; Conceptualization of Economic Growth;Characteristics of Developing and Developed Economy; Leibenstein’s model of Economic Characteristics of Developing Countries; Indian Models of EconomicsDevelopment – V.K.R.V. Rao; B.R. Ambedkar; C.N. Vakil; A.K. Sen; M.K. Gandhi
Population  and human resource development Malthusian devil of Population; Demographic dividend; Present Status of Population Growth – Census of India; SexRatio; Literacy Rate; Dropouts – Primary & Upper Primary; Life Expectancy; Standard of Living; Infant Mortality Rate; Child Mortality; Maternal Mortality Rate; Crude BirthRate/Crude Death Rate; Neonatal Mortality and PostnatalMortality; Meaning and Development of Human Resource; Source of Human Capital – Universalization of Education, Provision of Health Care, Social Infrastructure (Housing, Electricity, LPG, Drinking water and Toilets), Vocationalization of Education;


Higher Education: University Grants Commission (UGC), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Directorate of Technical Education (DTE), Directorate of CollegiateEducation (DCE), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), All India Council for technical education (AICTE), National Council for Teacher Education(NCTE), National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT); Medical Council of India (MCI)

Poverty and unemployment Meaning, Types of Poverty and Unemployment; Causes of poverty and Unemployment; Various programs for generation of Employment and Alleviation of Poverty; Critical assessment of Poverty estimates; State initiatives for poverty reduction, For example, AmmaUnavagam
National income Meaning and Definitions of National Income; gross domestic product (GDP); Net Domestic Product (NDP); Gross National Product (GNP); Net National Product (NNP); Per capita Income; Personal Income; Disposable Income; Features of National Income; Circular flow of NationalIncome; Method of measuring National Income: Output method; Income method; Expenditure method;


Difficulties in the measurement of National Income: Transfer payments; Income of foreign firms; Unpaid services; Income from illegal activities; Treatment of Government sector; Production of self-consumption; Changing price level; Practical difficulties of counting National Income: Double counting; Existence of non-monetized sector; Lack of occupational specialization; Inadequate and unreliable data; Capital gains or losses; Depreciation; Valuation of inventories; Illiteracy and ignorance; Sectoral contribution to National Income: Primary Sector; Secondary Sector; Tertiary Sector

Theories of distribution Marginal Productivity Theory of Distribution; Theories of Rent (Ricardian, Modern & Quasi-rent); Wages Theories (Marginal Productivity Theory) Market, Bargaining, Wage and Residual Claimant theory); Theories of Interest(Classical, Neo-classical and Keynesian); Profit Theories (Walker, MPT, Wage, Dynamic, Innovation, Risk-bearing and Uncertainty
Theories of employment Classical Theory of Employment; Full Employment; Say’ sLaw of Market; Aggregate Demand Function, AggregateSupply Function; MPC and MPS, APC and APS concepts; Effective Demand; Keynesian Psychological Law of Consumption; Keynesian Notion of Under Employment; Multiplier and Accelerator – Super; Multiplier; InvestmentFunction; IS-LM Function; Classicism versus; Keynesianism; Phillips Curve; Lorenz Curve
International trade Meaning and Significance; Why to Trade?; EconomicReforms -1991: Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization; Trade Policy Developments: General Agreement on Trade &Tariff (GATT) & General agreement on Trade in Services(GATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), Tariff Reform Programs; Indian Economy During Reforms: an assessment: Growth and Employment, Reforms inAgriculture, Reforms in Industry, Disinvestment, Reforms and Fiscal Policies; Balance of Payments and InvestmentPolicy: Balance of Trade, Exchange Rate Determinations –Clean float Dirty float, Foreign Exchange Management Act(FEMA), Foreign Exchange Reserves, Tariff, and Non-tariff barriers
Monetary and fiscal policies
  • Meaning and Definitions of Money; Kinds of Money;
  • Functions of Money;
  • Demand for Money;
  • Supply of Money;
  • Black Money and Demonetization ;
  • Money Markets & Capital Markets: Treasury Bill Markets, Call MoneyMarkets, Mutual Funds, Stock Exchange (NSE, BSE, and CSE), Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI);
  • Banks and Credit Instruments;
  • Monetary Tools: BankRate, Open Market Operations, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), Repo Rate and ReverseRepo Rate, Selective Credit Control Measures, Cheap money policy and Dear money policy; Digital Transactions; Fiscal Policy: Meaning and Objectives, Budget: Components of Budget: Revenue Budget, Capital Budget, Budget Receipts; Revenue Receipts: Revenue Deficits, Capital Deficits, Fiscal Deficits and Budget Deficit, TaxRevenue: Direct Tax, Indirect Tax, Goods and Services Tax(GST); Non-Tax Revenue: Interest and dividend on investments, Fees, License Fee, Fines and penalties, Escheats; Capital Receipts: Borrowings, Recovery of loans, Other Receipts;
  • Budget Expenditure: RevenueExpenditure, Capital Expenditure; Types of GovernmentBudget: Balanced Budget, Surplus Budget, Deficit Budget; Macroeconomic Policy: Meaning and Types of Inflation, Anti-inflationary measures, Deflation, Stagflation; MacroGoals: Full employment, Price Stability, Exchange rate stability, Balanced Economic Growth, Growth with social justice, Inclusive Growth
Tamil Nadu economy and resource management Profiles of Resources: Land, Forests, Labour: Organized, Un-organized; Capital: Physical capital, Financial capital, Social capital, Foreign capital, Human capital; Organization: Public sector, Private sector, Public sector Disinvestment, Equity versus Efficiency; Disaster Management: Tsunami, Earthquake, Flood & Fire, Drought, Famine, Cyclone; Information Management: Information of competitive examinations, Awareness of TNPSC/UPSC and otherCompetitive examinations; Transparency and good governance: Economics of Corruption, Transparency in Natural Resource Utilization
Environmental and sustainable development with special reference in Tamil Nadu
  • Meaning of Environment and Development Functions;
  • Definition of Sustainable Development;
  • Types of Pollution: Air pollution, Water pollution, Noise pollution, Thermal pollution, Land pollution, Marine Pollution, Radioactiveelement; Land Degradation;
  • Soil Degradation;
  • Solid waste management; E-waste ;
  • Linkages of Environment with economy ;
  • Significance to Environmental Valuation: Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Hedonic PricingMethod, Travel cost Method, Production FunctionApproach, Cost-Benefit Analysis; Market Goods;
  • Non-market Goods; Forest Resources: Direct use value: TimberHarvesting, Bird Watching, and Hiking, Non-use value: Soil Stabilization, Climate Stabilization, Ground WaterStabilization;
  • Water Resource Management: Kudimaramathumurai, Rainwater harvesting, Recycling of wastewater, Sprinkler Irrigation, Drip Irrigation, Groundwater recharge Shaft, Watershed management- CheckDams Percolation ponds; Integrated Farming System;
  • Environmental awareness Programmes; Global Warming and Climate Change Challenges; Green initiatives in TamilNadu; Preservation of Biodiversity
Statistical techniques in economies Basic Statistical Tools for Economic Analysis: Mean, Median and Mode, Mean deviation, Quartile deviation, Standard deviation and Harmonic deviation, Co-variance, Simple correlation, and Simple regression, RankCorrelation, Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation, Laspeyres, Paasche and Fisher’s Indices; Introduction to probability: Binomial and Poisson Distribution
Basic econometrics Meaning, Definitions, and Objectives of Econometrics; Scope of Econometrics; Single Equation Regression Model: Nature of Regression Analysis, Two variable RegressionAnalysis: Some basic ideas, Ordinary Least SquareEstimation (OLSE), Non-linear Regression, Panel data analysis, Time-Series data Analysis, Graphical Method


Syllabus of Tamil Nadu 12th HSC 2023-24 – History

Chapters Topics
History of Modern India India under East India Company’s Rule, Education under the Company’s rule, British rule in Tamilnadu, The Great Revolt of 1857, Changes in Indian administration after 1858, India’s Freedom Movement, Role of Tamilnadu in India’s Freedom Movement, India after independence – Social, Economic, Scientific and Technological Progress.
Modern world history Renaissance, the American war of independence, French Revolution, Industrial, and Agricultural Revolutions, Spread of Colonialism, Russian Revolution, Rise of Fascism and Nazism, Second World War, Growth of Asian Nations China and Japan after the Second World War, UNO, Cold War.

Exam Pattern of 12th TN Board 2023-24

It is essential for students to aware of the Tamil Nadu class 12th exam pattern. Candidates should know the weightage of the questions with the class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus 2023-24. Students must go through the previous year’s question papers to understand the question pattern. 

Examination Duration Subjects
Part-I Language 3 Hours Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Urdu, Sanskrit, Arabic, French, and German.
Part -II English 3 Hours English
Part- III any 4 subjects 3 Hours Any 4 subjects from general stream papers or vocational stream papers


Students are requested to plan their studies according to the time-table. Make notes of your study material that will help you later at the time of the Tamil Nadu 12th exams. Practice more and more for increasing the chance of getting higher marks. I hope you liked the article and recommend others to take advantage of the latest Tamil Nadu 12th syllabus.

If you are confused about selecting after the 12th class, students are advised to choose CA for better future planning. CA includes three stages that students have to complete are CA Foundation, CA Intermediate, and CA Final.

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